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Some CBD products may yield cannabis-positive urine drug tests

In a study of six adults, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report evidence that a single vaping episode of cannabis that is similar in chemical composition to that found in legal hemp products could possibly result in positive results on urine drug screening tests commonly used by many employers and criminal justice or school systems.

The U.S. government defines hemp as any crop of cannabis containing 0.3% THC or less in dry weight. THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the substance in cannabis that confers a “high” and produces the subjective and cognitive effects that are typically synonymous with cannabis. The 2018 U.S. Farm Bill legalized the production and sale of hemp, and now as a result, consumer hemp products, such as oils, vaping cartridges and hemp flowers for smoking can be legally purchased in specialty stores, general retail stores and through websites across the U.S.

Hemp is now increasingly finding use in medicine and wellness markets, particularly for its component CBD, short for cannabidiol, which is one of the more than 100 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. According to New York-based investment bank Cowen & Co., the market for CBD last year ranged from $600 million and $2 billion in sales. Despite the size of this booming industry, it remains largely unregulated.

In a paper published Nov. 4 in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology, the researchers report that two out of six study participants tested positive after vaping cannabis that contained 0.39% THC using urine testing methods that are consistent with testing frequently performed for employment-related or criminal justice-related urine drug testing programs. Though the cannabis used in this study does not currently meet the federal definition of hemp, the THC concentration of 0.39% exceeds federal regulation by just 0.09%.

“People who use legal hemp products for medical intent rarely just use them once as we did in this study, and prior studies show that THC and its metabolites may accumulate with repeated use,” says postdoctoral fellow Tory Spindle, Ph.D., a researcher in the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. “What this means is that people need to be wary of single-dose or cumulative THC exposure and be aware that these now legal products may cause an unexpected positive result on a drug test.”

“Because the market for CBD products is so new and the popularity of use is growing so quickly, we want the public to be aware that a positive drug test is possible,” says Ryan Vandrey, Ph.D., associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Vandrey and his collaborators at the University of Pennsylvania previously showed in a JAMA study that 21% of CBD/hemp products sold on the Internet contained THC, even though it wasn’t listed on the product labels. “I have a hard time finding anyone who hasn’t used a CBD product at least once, but most are completely unaware of the possibility of THC exposure or a positive drug test as a result of using these newly legalized products,” says Vandrey.

trials demonstrated CBD to be an effective treatment for two rare forms of pediatric epilepsy, however, there is currently insufficient evidence to support use for any other health condition according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Despite this, CBD product suppliers and consumers claim benefits of CBD for a wide range of purposes, including everything from anxiety to insomnia to general wellness. CBD products can be swallowed in the form of an oil/tincture, eaten in a food product (e.g., gummy bears), inhaled using “vape pens” similar to electronic cigarettes, or applied topically to the skin in a cream, patch, balm or gel.

For the current study, the researchers recruited three women and three men with an average age of 31 years old. One participant self-reported as African American and the rest as white.

The batch of cannabis used in this particular study contained 10.5% CBD and 0.39% THC, a 27 to 1 ratio of CBD to THC that is similar to what is often found in legal hemp/CBD products. In the study, research volunteers vaporized a little less than 1 gram of cannabis, which contained a total dose of 100 milligrams of CBD and 3.7 milligrams of THC. To vape the cannabis, heated cannabis vapor was collected into a balloon that was then inhaled by the participant.

In addition to vaping the high CBD/low THC cannabis, study volunteers also were given pure CBD in a capsule, vaporized pure CBD and placebo (a mock CBD pill and vaporized cannabis in which CBD and THC had been removed) in three other dosing sessions, one week apart from each other. In all active drug conditions (excluding placebo), the CBD dose delivered was 100 milligrams per session.

The drug testing cut-off used to determine a “positive” result in this study was a “screening” concentration of at least 50 nanograms per milliliter of THCCOOH, a metabolite used to indicate whether someone has used cannabis, in the urine sample using an on-site “dipstick” test. A positive on that test was then “confirmed” at a 15 nanograms per milliliter cut-off of THCCOOH using a more sensitive test method.

Two of the six participants who vaped the low-THC/high-CBD cannabis tested positive for THCCOOH.

No positive urine drug test results were observed in the other test sessions (pure CBD capsules, pure CBD vape or placebo).

“These results suggest that pure CBD, used once by itself, will not cause a positive drug test,” says Vandrey. Adding to this, Spindle points out that it “does not take much THC exposure to trigger a positive test for some people.” There may be variation from person to person in drug metabolism and puffing behaviors such as inhalation depth, which might contribute to the breakdown or buildup of cannabinoids in the body, the researchers say.

The team says they plan to repeat their studies using products that fall within the current federal hemp regulations with respect to THC content, and additionally study the impact of repeated CBD/hemp exposure on drug testing outcomes.

Other authors on the study were Edward Cone and George Bigelow of Johns Hopkins, David Kuntz of Clinical Reference Laboratory, John Mitchell of RTI International and Ronald Flegel of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

This research was supported by SAMHSA and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (T32DA07209).

COI: Vandrey has been a paid consultant for or received honoraria from Zynerba Pharmaceuticals, FSD Pharma and Canopy Health Innovations Inc.

Hemp is now increasingly finding use in medicine and wellness markets, particularly for its component CBD, short for cannabidiol, which is one of the more than 100 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. According to New York-based investment bank Cowen & Co., the market for CBD last year ranged from $600 million and $2 billion in sales. Despite the size of this booming industry, it remains largely unregulated.

In a paper published Nov. 4 in the Journal of Analytical Toxicology, the researchers report that two out of six study participants tested positive after vaping cannabis that contained 0.39% THC using urine testing methods that are consistent with testing frequently performed for employment-related or criminal justice-related urine drug testing programs. Though the cannabis used in this study does not currently meet the federal definition of hemp, the THC concentration of 0.39% exceeds federal regulation by just 0.09%.

“People who use legal hemp products for medical intent rarely just use them once as we did in this study, and prior studies show that THC and its metabolites may accumulate with repeated use,” says postdoctoral fellow Tory Spindle, Ph.D., a researcher in the Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. “What this means is that people need to be wary of single-dose or cumulative THC exposure and be aware that these now legal products may cause an unexpected positive result on a drug test.”

“Because the market for CBD products is so new and the popularity of use is growing so quickly, we want the public to be aware that a positive drug test is possible,” says Ryan Vandrey, Ph.D., associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Vandrey and his collaborators at the University of Pennsylvania previously showed in a JAMA study that 21% of CBD/hemp products sold on the Internet contained THC, even though it wasn’t listed on the product labels. “I have a hard time finding anyone who hasn’t used a CBD product at least once, but most are completely unaware of the possibility of THC exposure or a positive drug test as a result of using these newly legalized products,” says Vandrey.

Trials demonstrated CBD to be an effective treatment for two rare forms of pediatric epilepsy, however, there is currently insufficient evidence to support use for any other health condition according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Despite this, CBD product suppliers and consumers claim benefits of CBD for a wide range of purposes, including everything from anxiety to insomnia to general wellness. CBD products can be swallowed in the form of an oil/tincture, eaten in a food product (e.g., gummy bears), inhaled using “vape pens” similar to electronic cigarettes, or applied topically to the skin in a cream, patch, balm or gel.

For the current study, the researchers recruited three women and three men with an average age of 31 years old. One participant self-reported as African American and the rest as white.

The batch of cannabis used in this particular study contained 10.5% CBD and 0.39% THC, a 27 to 1 ratio of CBD to THC that is similar to what is often found in legal hemp/CBD products. In the study, research volunteers vaporized a little less than 1 gram of cannabis, which contained a total dose of 100 milligrams of CBD and 3.7 milligrams of THC. To vape the cannabis, heated cannabis vapor was collected into a balloon that was then inhaled by the participant.

In addition to vaping the high CBD/low THC cannabis, study volunteers also were given pure CBD in a capsule, vaporized pure CBD and placebo (a mock CBD pill and vaporized cannabis in which CBD and THC had been removed) in three other dosing sessions, one week apart from each other. In all active drug conditions (excluding placebo), the CBD dose delivered was 100 milligrams per session.

The drug testing cut-off used to determine a “positive” result in this study was a “screening” concentration of at least 50 nanograms per milliliter of THCCOOH, a metabolite used to indicate whether someone has used cannabis, in the urine sample using an on-site “dipstick” test. A positive on that test was then “confirmed” at a 15 nanograms per milliliter cut-off of THCCOOH using a more sensitive test method.

Two of the six participants who vaped the low-THC/high-CBD cannabis tested positive for THCCOOH.

No positive urine drug test results were observed in the other test sessions (pure CBD capsules, pure CBD vape or placebo).

“These results suggest that pure CBD, used once by itself, will not cause a positive drug test,” says Vandrey. Adding to this, Spindle points out that it “does not take much THC exposure to trigger a positive test for some people.” There may be variation from person to person in drug metabolism and puffing behaviors such as inhalation depth, which might contribute to the breakdown or buildup of cannabinoids in the body, the researchers say.

The team says they plan to repeat their studies using products that fall within the current federal hemp regulations with respect to THC content, and additionally study the impact of repeated CBD/hemp exposure on drug testing outcomes.

Other authors on the study were Edward Cone and George Bigelow of Johns Hopkins, David Kuntz of Clinical Reference Laboratory, John Mitchell of RTI International and Ronald Flegel of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

This research was supported by SAMHSA and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (T32DA07209).

A small study concludes that caution is warranted for users of ‘high CBD, low THC’ cannabis products.

Will CBD Cause Me to Test Positive on a Drug Test?

Many employers, for a number of good reasons, drug test their employees. Jobs that require strict attention, such as truck drivers and those operating heavy machinery would be ill-suited to those under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Those in the medical field, people working with young children, police officers, firefighters, and airline pilots are just a few of those who should expect to be tested upon hire and through random drug testing.

Most drug tests used for employment run from 5 to 10 panels. They screen for drugs such as barbiturates, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, and THC. THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is one of over 100 cannabinoids identified in cannabis. This molecule is the psychoactive component of the plant. It is what’s responsible for getting users “high.”

Drug tests almost universally screen for the cannabinoid THC. CBD, or cannabidiol, is also a cannabinoid identified in hemp and marijuana. However, it has different properties from THC. It is not regarded as psychoactive, nor is it thought to cause impairment. Drug tests generally do not test for this molecule.

Nonetheless, because CBD is produced from cannabis (and yes, hemp is part of the cannabis family), taking anything made from full-spectrum hemp extract could theoretically trigger a positive THC test. Legally, hemp is defined as any cannabis plant with less than 0.3% delta-9 THC. Ingesting anything with less than 0.3% THC will emphatically not get you “high;” however, the trace amount metabolized by your body could show up in drug tests. Many employment drug tests are designed to detect very small amounts of the substance. In addition, the molecule is fat-soluble, and as a result, can remain in your system for days to weeks.

Whether trace amounts of THC show up on a drug test depend on a number of factors. Body composition, activity level, frequency of use, and concentration of dose all affect THC levels. For example, someone who is inactive with high levels of body fat are more likely to hold onto the trace amounts of CBD as those who are lean and work out daily. Genetics and metabolism also likely contribute to differences.

Full-spectrum products are preferred by many users because not only do they contain CBD, they contain small amounts of other cannabinoids, many of which are thought to have beneficial and synergistic properties.

If you are drug tested and have only been using CBD products, speaking to your employer may be your only option. Your employer will have the final word on whether they accept your explanation, but saving evidence of your use of CBD may help. Unfortunately, there is no way to differentiate the THC from a CBD product from that of a legal hemp product.

However, the good news for those who are drug tested is that CBD can be isolated from other cannabinoids. Our CBD Isolate is one such product. CBD isolate is still beneficial, and many have found that it works for their issues. The CBD isolate has undetectable levels of THC and on its own will not produce a positive THC drug test.

Worth noting, though is that CBD is not regulated. The tinctures found in health food stores, gas stations, and retail boutiques has not gone through a standardized testing protocol. In fact, the labeling accuracy of most products is highly suspect. The majority in the study were found to not contain levels of CBD on the bottle. Some contained more than the legal amount of THC. And a few even contained synthetic cannabinoids.

When selecting a CBD product, it is essential to go with an ethical company where strict testing and good quality control are standards. We guarantee the potency and purity of our products.

Many employers, for a number of good reasons, drug test their employees. Jobs that require strict attention, such as truck drivers and those operating heavy machinery would be ill-suited to those under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Those in the medical field, people working with young children, police officers, fi