Vaping CBD carries unique risks
senior lifestyle correspondent
People like vaping because it’s a smokeless, convenient, and fast-acting way to consume pleasure-inducing chemicals including THC and nicotine. It’s also potentially quite dangerous—and that’s also true when it comes to vaping cannabidiol, the popular cannabis-derived compound known as CBD. In fact, thanks to a regulatory no-man’s-land, a consumer craze, and manufacturers who dilute extract with oils better suited for salad dressings, CBD vapes are uniquely risky.
As of Oct. 10, more than 1,200 cases of a mysterious vaping-related illness, and 26 related deaths had been reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is advising consumers to “consider refraining” from vaping altogether. Of the 771 patients the CDC previously reported data on, the majority reported vaping THC and/or nicotine. Only about 17% reported having vaped a CBD product, but there is still good reason for CBD enthusiasts to take note—and even to be especially cautious.
“There’s no regulations.”
“There’s no regulations, there’s no one telling companies what to do,” says Jonathan Miller, general counsel for the trade group US Hemp Roundtable. “I don’t want to say it incentivizes bad behavior but it certainly doesn’t crack down on bad behavior.”
While no single brand, product, or ingredient has been identified as the cause of the 1,000-plus cases of vaping-associated pulmonary injury—first called VAPI and now renamed EVALI—we do know that many of the affected patients were vaping illicit, and therefore unregulated, THC products. Tests showed many of those contained vitamin E acetate, an oil derived from vitamin E—which is considered safe for skincare but not for inhalation.
We can’t reasonably expect dealers of illegal cannabis vapes would test their products for safety or share ingredient lists with customers. The thing is, consumers can’t necessarily expect that sort of testing or transparency from manufacturers of hemp-derived CBD vapes either—even if they’re buying them from vape shops, specialty stores, or websites that don’t appear to be breaking the law. The category is completely unregulated. And reckless players are not limited to labeling their products as THC. In September, the Associated Press tested 30 vape products marketed as CBD from brands that authorities had flagged as suspect, and found that 10 contained dangerous synthetic marijuana and many had little to no CBD at all.
While the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been struggling to research and regulate both CBD and vaping separately, the agency has allowed manufacturers to flood the market with both types of products. In the FDA’s eyes, none of these products are legal, as they have not been evaluated or regulated for their safety. And where these two categories overlap in CBD vapes is a grey area that’s ripe for exploitation at the risk of consumers’ health. According to analysts at Cowen and Company, that grey area was worth an estimated $40 million in sales in 2018.
Meanwhile Miller, along with many others in the cannabis and hemp industries, is eager for lawmakers to create legal frameworks for their products. They point to the reported illnesses from black-market vapes as proof that a legal, regulated cannabis market is a safer one.
A brief legal primer
The difference between cannabis and industrial hemp in the eyes of US law is the content of THC, the intoxicating compound in cannabis: If a plant contains more than 0.3% THC by dry weight, it’s cannabis, and still considered federally illegal despite the many states with legalized recreational and medicinal use. If it’s less 0.3% THC by dry weight, it’s considered hemp, which is being incrementally regulated by government agencies. The 2018 Farm Bill removed industrial hemp from the Controlled Substances Act, essentially declassifying it as a dangerous controlled substance of no medical use, clarifying its status as an agricultural product, and making it legal under federal law under some circumstances.
In May of this year, the FDA held a public hearing where more than 100 stakeholders—patients, manufacturers, and researchers among them—testified about their experiences with CBD. Now, the industry is waiting for a timeline for regulation, which was expected this autumn, but has yet to appear. In the meantime, the FDA considers interstate sale of CBD as a food additive or nutritional supplement (ie., all those candies, canned sodas, and tinctures) to be illegal. But it’s not enforcing the law so long as operators in the estimated $590 million market for hemp-derived CBD adhere to the broader rules for the categories they fall in, whether that’s food, supplements, or cosmetics.
But here’s where it gets complicated, because the FDA hasn’t regulated vaping yet.
“You get kind of a double grey area here,” says Miller. “CBD is considered illegal by the FDA, and vaping is now viewed pretty hostilely by the FDA. It really is a great unknown … Without the FDA engaged formally, it makes it a lot tougher for consumers to figure out what’s a good product and what’s not.”
You might be safer with weed
If you’re in a state where weed is legal, you might be safer smoking (or vaping) it, by going to a licensed dispensary for a high CBD-strain or vape that’s subject to the same regulations that cannabis is. In states like California and Oregon, where cannabis is regulated by state agencies, products with THC are subject to testing for contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, solvents, and mold-related toxins. Again, hemp-derived CBD products are currently subject to … nothing.
“It’s the wild, wild west,” says Aaron Riley, the CEO of the Los Angeles-based cannabis testing lab CannaSafe, of the CBD landscape. Riley says that many of the CBD products CannaSafe tests would fail if they were subject to the same exacting standards as products containing THC—but they’re not. “You don’t have to get licensed. You don’t have to do any type of testing at all.”
Which isn’t to say that no one is testing CBD products. As the Hemp Roundtable’s Miller said, “some very well-meaning companies will try to promote the best practices.”
Some of those companies are those that come from the cannabis industry, and therefore have years of experience with extraction and testing.
The northern California-based company Bloom Farms—which has been in the cannabis extracts business since 2014—started selling hemp-derived CBD products online in January, and puts them through the same testing processes as their products with THC, which are under the strict purview of the California Bureau of Cannabis Control. Customers can also download a certificate of analysis from Bloom’s website that provides test results from a third-party lab, but that’s far from standard in the CBD space.
An oily situation
And of course, not all CBD vapes are created equal. Many extracts sold in vape pens and cartridges are diluted with other substances, such as medium-chain-triglyceride, or MCT, oils—fats that are frequently derived from natural sources such as coconut oil. While these are known to be safe to eat—and are often found in CBD tinctures—there’s little if any evidence that it’s safe to vape them, despite some manufacturers touting them as an all-natural ingredient.
“It’s totally horrifying to me,” says Katie Stem, an herbalist who cofounded the Oregon-based cannabis company Peak Extracts in 2014, and has researched plant medicine and chemistry at Oregon Health & Science University. “People should not be cutting [cannabis extracts] with any sort of culinary lipid.” Stem says that with an extraction process using carbon dioxide as a solvent, it’s possible to create a vape-able distillate containing only plant material, without any additives.
Quartz contacted two manufacturers of CBD vape pens that contain MCT oil, and neither has replied to our messages. Bloom Farms’ unflavored CBD vape contains no MCTs or other cutting agents. The company’s flavored CBD vape pens contain trace amounts of MCTs—less than 0.3% according to a company representative—and the company is currently phasing them out.
Neal Benowitz, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, who has studied the pharmacology of e-cigarettes, says that CO2 extraction process is “pretty clean,” and the results are well-known.
“People have been vaping them for a long time, and haven’t had a problem,” he says. “That seems to be relatively safe, and that’s a solvent that dissolves them. The question now is, when you start messing with that process, what are you adding to it?”
Benowitz said the effects of vaping MCT oil, however, is an understudied area.
“I’m concerned about it,” he says. “But I don’t have any data.”
Stem speculates the tendency to mix cannabis extract with MCTs might come down to greed or ignorance, and a misunderstanding of the term “cannabis oil,” which is something of a misnomer since CBD and THC extracts are not fatty lipids at all.
“They think, ‘Oh, it’s an oil. I can mix it with another oil and that will thin it and it will make it easier to flow into our vape pen,’ and it’s not harmful because we’re already smoking oil. Well, no. Cannabis extract is not an oil,” says Stem.
Kathryn Melamed, a pulmonologist at University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center who has seen patients affected by vaping, agrees that smoking oils can be dangerous, and notes that the vaping-related illness bears some resemblance to lipoid pneumonia—a direct reaction to lipids or oils in the lungs.
“While one type of substance—like vitamin E or maybe some other oil—can be ingested and metabolized through the gut, the lung just doesn’t have that ability,” she says. “So then it becomes much more dangerous, and a particle that the lung wants to try to fight and expel. And that’s the inflammatory response that you get.”
A regulatory no-man's land and a consumer craze have created a perfect storm of untested oils for vaping.
Benefits of CBD: What it Does and How it Helps
- What are the effects of CBD?
- What are the benefits of CBD?
- Should you vape CBD oil?
CBD is a compound found in cannabis plants that has a variety of known health benefits—notably the ability to relax and soothe the user. Unlike its cannabinoid relative THC, the effects of CBD (which is short for cannabidiol) are produced without intoxication. CBD is psychoactive—it reduces anxiety—but it doesn’t create a “high” like THC does.
Hemp has been cultivated for thousands of years for its fiber, and more recently as a source of CBD. The 2018 Farm Bill that legalized industrial hemp production in the U.S. pushed the already growing CBD industry into overdrive, and now CBD is legally available in most places in the country—as long as it contains less than 0.3% THC. Hemp-derived CBD doesn’t usually contain measurable amounts of THC.
CBD is extracted from industrial hemp or marijuana plants (both are cannabis) and processed for several methods of consumption. Vaping is the fastest way to experience the effects of CBD, because inhalation delivers your preferred CBD dose to the bloodstream and brain much more rapidly than other methods.
In addition to being absorbed more quickly, inhalation provides greater bioavailability, which means you can absorb more CBD from the same quantity than you would using other methods. While there is still more to learn about the long-term effects of vaping CBD, vaping is considered to be much safer than smoking, while being equally effective.
CBD e-liquid is sometimes called CBD oil, but it contains no actual oil, which can be dangerous to inhale. Like all e-liquid, CBD vape juice contains vegetable glycerin (VG) and propylene glycol (PG). But CBD tinctures and edible products contain actual oils, which are perfectly safe to swallow. (You can use CBD vape juice orally too, if you prefer.)
There is considerable research suggesting that cannabidiol produces positive effects that can treat a variety of conditions and symptoms. In this guide, we look at the most well-documented effects and benefits of using CBD oil.
What are the effects of CBD?
The most commonly reported effects of CBD are a sense of calm or relaxation, relief from pain or anxiety, and an overall improvement in mood. In high doses, CBD can induce drowsiness or sleep, but in small amounts, it can actually have the opposite effect, promoting alertness. These are the effects most CBD users seek:
- Relaxation or calmness
- Reduced anxiety and stress
- Improved mood
- Pain relief
- Sleepiness (in high doses)
- Alertness (in low doses)
CBD oil made from hemp typically doesn’t contain enough THC to get you high, but it can produce a strong sense of calm without the uneasiness, paranoia and other side effects some people experience from marijuana. That’s actually why a lot of people use CBD. Many users specifically take CBD oil for anxiety.
But there’s a caveat: the speed and intensity of these effects depend on how it’s consumed. The effects of vaping CBD come on faster. Even though the sensations will eventually be generally the same, a CBD oil tincture, or a CBD edible will take longer, and will probably require more CBD content to deliver the same benefits.
These are the most common ways of using CBD, listed from the fastest delivery to the brain and body to the slowest:
- Vaping in a mod with CBD vape juice, or using CBD oil pens or cartridges
- Vaping or smoking CBD-rich hemp flower or high-CBD cannabis strains
- Using CBD oil tinctures sublingually (under the tongue)
- Wearing a CBD transdermal patch
- Eating CBD gummies or edibles
- Swallowing CBD capsules or pills
- Using CBD creams or topicals
One last thing to remember is that the faster you absorb and process CBD, the more quickly it leaves your system. Vaping is the quickest way to feel the effects of CBD, and it’s also the quickest to process through your body. Edibles or other products that are processed through the liver and digestive system linger in your body for a longer time.
What are the benefits of CBD?
Scientific research suggests that CBD has a wide range of therapeutic properties. Here are some of the benefits and potential benefits studies show that CBD may provide for a variety of conditions.
Epilepsy and seizure disorders
As far back as 1973, research showed that CBD actively reduced or blocked convulsions in rodents, which was confirmed by other studies soon after. In later research, epileptic patients that received 200-300 mg of CBD per day had fewer seizures.
One of the most well-documented examples of CBD as an anti-convulsant was a young girl named Charlotte Figi who suffered from Dravet syndrome, a rare condition that conventional medication was unable to treat effectively. She was given a tincture derived from a low-THC/high-CBD cannabis strain, which was later named Charlotte’s Web in tribute to the young patient. Charlotte’s seizures were drastically reduced—from about 1,200 a month to just two or three.
In June 2018 the FDA approved Epidiolex, a CBD-based drug for treating Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes in patients two and older. Epidiolex is the first drug to gain FDA approval that contains a purified substance derived from cannabis. In April 2020, the Drug Enforcement Administration removed Epidiolex from the controlled substances list, making it much easier for doctors to prescribe the drug to epileptic patients.
One of the most common effects of vaping CBD oil is drowsiness, especially when administered in higher doses. An animal study conducted in the early 1970s first showed the sleep-inducing effects of CBD. In people with insomnia, CBD has been shown to increase sleep time when taken in a dose of about 160 mg. In non-insomnia patients, a similar effect was observed at much higher doses. In micro doses, CBD may promote alertness, instead of inducing drowsiness.
Multiple studies have shown that CBD can effectively treat anxiety. Research using advanced brain imaging has confirmed the anxiolytic effect of CBD. These mood-regulating effects of cannabidiol may also be used to treat depression. Researchers believe that CBD also has the potential to treat other anxiety disorders such as OCD and PTSD.
A 1982 study showed that CBD seemed to inhibit THC-induced symptoms associated with psychosis. Another study from the same year suggested a variety of neural pathways by which CBD might treat psychosis. Researchers believe that CBD can also be used to treat depression and other psychiatric disorders.
CBD is cardioprotective, showing a “tissue sparing effect” during chronic myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. British researchers have also shown that cannabidiol reduced the number of ischemia-induced arrhythmias in rats when given prior to ischemias. This research could prove beneficial to cardiovascular disease patients.
Israeli researchers believe that CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties could prove beneficial for treating type 2 diabetes. Because chronic inflammation can lead to insulin resistance, treatment of inflammation with CBD could improve metabolism and ward off diabetes. The scientists believe that the actions of CBD in the body could also be modified to work on other receptors, and that the compound might be used to treat other diseases caused or worsened by chronic inflammation.
Side effects from chemotherapy
THC has long been accepted as a therapy for nausea induced by cancer treatment. Marinol, a synthetic THC drug, has been approved for that purpose since 1985, and THC in various forms has been widely prescribed to cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. But CBD may also serve as an equally effective treatment for nausea.
CBD interacts with receptors that release the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is partially responsible for causing nausea. In small doses, CBD can help reduce the symptoms of nausea. And an acidic form of CBD called CBDA may be an even more effective anti-nausea drug than CBD or THC, based on early animal studies.
Anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects
CBD appears to have antioxidant and neuroprotective effects that are unrelated to the cannabinoid receptors. A 1998 study from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke—a rare federally funded study on a Schedule 1 drug—found that CBD “may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia” (an artery blockage that can lead to strokes). CBD also shows promise as a therapy for neurological diseases like Parkinson’s.
Should you vape CBD oil?
CBD shows huge potential for treating a variety of medical conditions and diseases, and researchers have barely scratched the surface. When federal legalization of cannabis comes, research funding will open the floodgates, and scientists will begin to explore thousands of therapeutic possibilities for CBD and other cannabinoids.
But until then, many people have found that the currently known benefits of CBD can help them live better lives. If you decide CBD is right for you, there are many ways to use it—not just vaping, but also tinctures, and topical and edible CBD products.
Research shows that CBD provides a variety of benefits, including reducing inflammation and pain, and relaxing users suffering from anxiety.