The Health Benefits of CBD Oil
This cannabis extract may help treat nerve pain, anxiety, and epilepsy
Cathy Wong is a nutritionist and wellness expert. Her work is regularly featured in media such as First For Women, Woman’s World, and Natural Health.
Lana Butner, ND, LAc, is a board-certified naturopathic doctor and licensed acupuncturist in private practice in New York City .
CBD oil is an extract of Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa—the same plants that, when dried, make marijuana. CBD oil is believed by some to treat pain, reduce anxiety, and stimulate appetite in the same way that marijuana does, but without its psychoactive effects. CBD has also shown promise in treating certain types of seizures.
CBD is the short name for cannabidiol, one of the two chemicals—among the dozens in cannabis—that have the most health benefits. The other, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is what gets people “high.” CBD oil generally does not contain THC, although some trace amounts may be present in products sold in certain states.
CBD oil contains CBD mixed with an inert carrier oil, such as coconut oil or hemp seed oil. The bottled oil, called a tincture, is sold in various concentrations. There are also CBD capsules, CBD gummies, and under-the-tongue CBD sprays.
CBD’s exact mechanism of action is unclear. Unlike THC, CBD has a relatively low affinity for cannabinoid receptors in the brain. These are the molecules to which THC binds to elicit its psychoactive effects.
Instead, CBD is thought to influence other receptors, including opioid receptors that regulate pain and glycine receptors involved in the regulation of the “feel-good” hormone serotonin.
Proponents claim that CBD oil can treat a wide variety of health problems, including:
- Chronic pain
- Drug addiction and withdrawal
- High blood pressure
- Muscle spasms
- Parkinson’s disease
Despite the growing popularity of CBD use, CBD oil remains sorely under-researched. As such, some of these claims are better supported by studies than others.
Here is just some of what the current evidence says.
CBD shows promise in the treatment of anxiety disorders, suggests a 2015 review of studies in the journal Neurotherapeutics. According to the investigators, CBD demonstrated potent anxiolytic (anxiety-relieving) effects in animal research, albeit with counterintuitive results.
In all but a few studies, lower doses of CBD (10 milligrams per kilogram, mg/kg, or less) were better able to treat symptoms of anxiety. Higher doses (100 mg/kg or more) exhibited virtually no effect.
Part of this response could be explained by the way that CBD acts in the brain. In many cases, CBD works as an agonist, meaning that it triggers an opposite response when binding to a receptor. It is possible that low doses can elicit a positive agonist response, while high doses overwhelm the brain and trigger a compensatory effect to fight CBD’s effects.
Among the few human trials evaluating CBD’s anxiolytic effects was one published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry in 2019. For this study, 57 men were given either CBD oil or a placebo before a public-speaking event. Anxiety was evaluated using physiological measures (such as blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) and a relatively reliable test for mood states known as the Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS).
According to the investigators, men provided 300 mg of CBD exhibited less anxiety than those given a placebo. Interestingly, those provided 100 mg or 600 mg of CBD oil did not.
CBD oil may benefit those with drug addiction, suggests a 2015 review of studies published in Substance Abuse.
In an analysis of 14 published studies (nine involving animals and five involving humans), scientists with the University of Montreal concluded that CBD “showed promise” in treating people with opioid, cocaine, or psychostimulant addiction.
However, the effect of CBD on each addiction type was often very different. With opioid addiction, for example, CBD showed little effect in minimizing withdrawal symptoms in the absence of THC. By contrast, CBD on its own appeared effective in minimizing drug-seeking behaviors in users of cocaine, methamphetamine, and other psychostimulant drugs.
There have also been suggestions that CBD may aid in the treatment of cannabis and nicotine addiction. Further research is needed.
Medical marijuana is frequently prescribed to people with intractable (treatment-resistant) pain, including those with terminal cancer. There is some evidence that CBD contributes to this benefit.
According to a 2012 study in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, rats injected with inflammatory chemicals in their hind feet experienced less inflammation and neuropathic pain when treated with an oral dose and spinal injection of CBD.
Scientists believe that CBD reduces nerve pain by binding to glycine receptors in the brain that regulate the speed at which nerve signals pass between nerve cells.
Human studies evaluating the use of CBD in treating chronic pain are lacking. Those that do exist almost invariably include THC, making it difficult to isolate CBD’s distinct effects.
CBD oil may reduce the risk of heart disease by alleviating hypertension (high blood pressure) in certain people, suggests a 2017 study in JCI Insight.
For this study, nine healthy men took either 600 mg of CBD or the same dose of a placebo. According to the researcher, those treated with CBD had lower blood pressure before and after exposure to stressful stimuli (including exercise or extreme cold).
In addition, the stroke volume (the amount of blood remaining in the heart after a heartbeat) was significantly reduced, meaning that the heart was pumping more efficiently.
The findings suggest that CBD oil may be a suitable complementary therapy for people whose hypertension is complicated by stress and anxiety. However, there is no evidence that CBD oil can treat hypertension on its own or prevent hypertension in people at risk. While stress is known to complicate high blood pressure, it cannot cause hypertension.
In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, a CBD oral solution used for the treatment of certain rare forms of epilepsy in children under 2—Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Both are exceptionally rare genetic disorders causing lifelong catastrophic seizures that begin during the first year of life.
Outside of these two disorders, CBD’s effectiveness in treating seizures is uncertain. Even with Epidiolex, it is uncertain whether the anti-seizure effects can be attributed to CBD or some other factor.
There is some evidence that CBD interacts with seizure medications such as Onfi (clobazam) and “boosts” their concentration in the blood. This would not only make the drugs more effective but extend their half-lives as well. Further research is needed.
Possible Side Effects
Clinical research has shown that CBD oil can trigger side effects. Severity and type can vary from one person to the next. Common symptoms include:
- Changes in appetite
- Changes in mood
- Dry mouth
CBD oil may also increase liver enzymes (a marker of liver inflammation). People with liver disease should use CBD oil with caution, ideally under the care of a doctor who can regularly check blood liver enzyme levels.
CBD oil should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding. A 2018 study from the American Academy of Pediatrics warned women to avoid marijuana during pregnancy due to the potential risks to a baby’s development. Although it is unclear how CBD contributes, CBD is known to pass through the placental barrier.
If you are thinking about using CBD oil to treat a health condition, be sure to speak with your healthcare provider to ensure that it is the right option for you.
Since some CBD oils contain trace amounts of THC, you should avoid driving or using heavy machinery when taking CBD oil, particularly when first starting treatment or using a new brand.
CBD oil can interact with certain medications, including some drugs used to treat epilepsy. CBD inhibits an enzyme called cytochrome P450 (CYP450), which certain drugs use for metabolization. By interfering with CYP450, CBD may either increase the toxicity or decrease the effectiveness of these drugs.
Potential drug-drug interactions with CBD include:
- Anti-arrhythmia drugs like quinidine
- Anticonvulsants like Tegretol (carbamazepine) and Trileptal (oxcarbazepine)
- Antifungal drugs like Nizoral (ketoconazole) and Vfend (voriconazole)
- Antipsychotic drugs like Orap (pimozide)
- Atypical antidepressants like Remeron (mirtazapine)
- Benzodiazepine sedatives like Klonopin (clonazepam) and Halcion (triazolam)
- Immune-suppressive drugs like Sandimmune (cyclosporine)
- Macrolide antibiotics like clarithromycin and telithromycin
- Migraine medications like Ergomar (ergotamine)
- Opioid painkillers like Duragesic (fentanyl) and alfentanil
- Rifampin-based drugs used to treat tuberculosis
Many of these interactions are mild and require no adjustment to treatment. Others may require a drug substitution or the separation of doses by several hours.
To avoid interactions, advise your doctor and pharmacist about any drugs you are taking, whether they are prescription, over-the-counter, herbal, or recreational.
Dosage and Preparation
There are no guidelines for the appropriate use of CBD oil. CBD oil is usually delivered sublingually (under the tongue). Most oils are sold in 30-milliliter (mL) bottles with a dropper cap.
There is currently no known “correct” dose of CBD oil. Depending on who you speak to, the daily dose can range anywhere from 5 mg to 25 mg.
The tricky part is calculating the exact amount of CBD per milliliter of oil. Some tinctures have concentrations of 1,500 mg per 30 mL, while others have 3,000 mg per mL (or more).
How to Calculate CBD Dose
To determine an exact dose of CBD, remember that each drop of oil equals 0.05 mL of fluid. This means that a 30-mL bottle of CBD oil will have roughly 600 drops. If the concentration of the tincture is 1,500 mg/mL, one drop would contain 2.5 mg of CBD (1,500 mg ÷ 600 drops = 2.5 mg).
To use CBD oil, place one or more drops under the tongue and hold the dose there for 30 to 60 seconds without swallowing. Capsules and gummies are easier to dose, although they tend to be more costly. CBD sublingual sprays are used mainly for convenience.
What to Look For
Aficionados of CBD oil will tell you to buy full-spectrum oils over CBD isolates. Unlike isolates, which contain CBD only, full-spectrum oils contain a variety of compounds found naturally in the cannabis plant, including proteins, flavonoids, terpenes, and chlorophyll. Alternative practitioners believe these compounds offer more substantial health benefits, although there is no clear evidence of this.
Remember, because CBD oils are largely unregulated, there is no guarantee that a product is either safe or effective.
According to a 2017 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association, only 30.95% of CBD products sold online were correctly labeled. Most contained less CBD than advertised, while 21.43% had significant amounts of THC.
Here are a few tips to help you find the best CBD oil:
- Buy American. Domestically produced CBD oil tends to be safer because of better growing and refining practices.
- Go organic. Brands certified organic by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are less likely to expose you to pesticides and other harmful chemicals.
- Read the product label. Even if you choose a full-spectrum oil, don’t assume that every ingredient on the product label is natural. There may be preservatives, flavorings, or thinning agents that you don’t want or need. If you don’t recognize an ingredient, ask the dispenser what it is or check online.
Are CBD Oil and Hemp Oil the Same?
Not necessarily. Although some people use the terms synonymously, they may also be referring to hemp seed oil, which is primarily used for cooking, food production, and skincare products. CBD oil is made from the leaves, stems, buds, and flowers of the Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa plant and should contain less than 0.3% THC. Hemp oil is made from the seeds of Cannabis sativa and contains no TCH.
CBD oil is made from cannabidiol, a non-intoxicating extract of marijuana, and is believed to treat pain, anxiety, and seizures.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 300mg
What’s the difference?
- Broad spectrum — CBD products made using a broad range of beneficial cannabinoids from hemp, but non-detectable levels of THC. This is a scientifically accurate way of saying there is essentially no THC, it’s been extracted as much as possible.
- Full spectrum — CBD products made using the full range of beneficial cannabinoids found in hemp, including up to the legal limit of 0.3% THC.
- Isolate — CBD products made with isolated CBD, no other cannabinoids from hemp.
- With 300mg of CBD
- With natural flavor
- Mild strength
Green Roads full-spectrum CBD oil is a holistic source of well-being. It’s made with a wide variety of supportive compounds found in hemp plants, including up to 0.3% THC, the federally legal limit. You can take 1ml servings that contain approximately 10mg of CBD, or simply control your own serving size to your liking with the measuring tool. This mixture, formulated by our pharmacist, is made with MCT oil, hemp seed oil, and more beneficial ingredients. This full-spectrum CBD oil is tested for purity and potency by an independent laboratory. You can review the outcome of this test by scanning the QR code on every package.
Place desired amount of oil in mouth and hold for 30 seconds before swallowing.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 300mg
- Batch : M24V01
- Batch : G28W02
- Batch : G28W02
- Batch : K01W01
- Batch : K01W01 MICROBIALS
- Batch : M09W01
- Batch : L03W01
In order for us to post your review on our site, it cannot have any medical claims. You CAN say that our product worked great, helped you feel better, or even changed your life! You just can’t mention a specific health condition such as anxiety (please use “stress” instead), pain (please use “discomfort” instead), arthritis, PTSD, or any other medical conditions. Thanks!
Full Spectrum CBD Oil – 300mg
- Batch : M24V01
- Batch : G28W02
- Batch : G28W02
- Batch : K01W01
- Batch : K01W01 MICROBIALS
- Batch : M09W01
- Batch : L03W01
Active: Hemp Derived Full Spectrum Cannabinoid Extract . Other Ingredients: Glycerin, MCT oil, Sunflower Lecithin, Helianthus Annuus (Sunflower) seed oil, Hemp Seed oil.
If you are pregnant or nursing, we advise you to consult your personal healthcare professionals before using any CBD product.
Does Green Roads grow its own hemp?
We choose not to own farms, and instead have strong relationships with several excellent farms right here in the United States. This gives us the advantage of choosing the best hemp plants for our ingredients and rejecting any raw materials that do not meet our standards.
Can you use CBD for stress?
Green Roads CBD oil can be used to help promote a sense of calm and support the management of normal day-to-day stress. Our products may also be able to support focus and help maintain normal emotional balance. Green Roads CBD products are not designed to treat, cure, or diagnose any form of anxiety disorders, mental health conditions, or other medical ailments.
Does CBD promote relaxation?
Our CBD products may promote relaxation and a calming effect. Green Roads CBD oils can also be used for everyday situations that may cause feelings of unease. The benefits of CBD may be different for everyone.
Why is Green Roads CBD oil better than other CBD oils on the market?
Green Roads CBD oil is a premium option from a brand that sets the gold standard for quality control in the industry. We use naturally occurring cannabidiol (CBD) and other natural compounds without any artificial ingredients or harmful chemical substances.
All of our CBD extracts are obtained from hemp plants grown on farms in the United States. Each of our products has been tested by third-party laboratories for purity and quality. You can check the results of this test via a QR code on the package.
What’s in the box that I will receive? What’s in the bottle?
When you buy Green Roads CBD drops, you will get a bottle and a special measuring tool. This will let you adjust your serving size to your liking. There will be instructions and a QR code on the bottle that will take you to each product’s independent lab results.
Will CBD make me hungry?
CBD has not been known to cause extreme hunger or the condition colloquially known as “the munchies.”
Will CBD oil affect my medication?
If you are taking any medications, we recommend you consult with your physician prior to using CBD products. For the safest and most effective use of CBD, use pharmacist-formulated CBD products from a trusted manufacturer like Green Roads. Using high-grade CBD with professional medical guidance is the best way to make the most of your CBD products.
CBD stands for cannabidiol, a compound found naturally in hemp plants. Unlike THC (the active cannabinoid in marijuana), CBD is not intoxicating which means it will not get you high. CBD interacts with a series of receptors in your body known as the Endocannabinoid System (ECS). The ECS relates to a number of important systems in your body and helps keep your internal rhythms in optimal balance.
Is There THC In Green Roads’ CBD Products?
If the CBD product is broad-spectrum, it will have only non-detectable levels of THC (meaning the amount is so small it doesn’t show up on a lab report). If the product is isolate, there will be no THC. If the product is full-spectrum, it will have less than 0.3% THC, the federally legal limit for industrial hemp plants.
Will Green Roads CBD Products Get Me High?
No. CBD is not intoxicating. THC is the compound that causes a high and all Green Roads products have less than the federally legal limit of 0.3% THC. Our broad spectrum and isolate products have even less. These minuscule amounts of THC aren’t enough to cause a high when taken as directed.
Why Do People Take CBD?
People use CBD to support their overall well-being in many ways. Some may need help with really specific issues. Others are supporting their overall well-being. Honestly, we learn a ton about how and why people use CBD from our customers.
You can do your own research online to see what challenges people are saying CBD helps them, their parents, their children or even their pets overcome. This is what it’s all about for us! We love reading positive stories about the impact our products have on people’s everyday lives. We get them from veterans, first responders, office workers, athletes, seniors, parents, and everybody else.
While we believe CBD can support wellness in many ways, you have to understand this is still a young industry. Encouraging research about CBD is emerging all the time, and we can’t wait to learn more in the future.
Why Can’t You Post All Your Reviews?
We are incredibly proud to say that of the 10,000+ reviews we’ve gotten from consumers, 90.4% have been either 4-star or 5-star. It’s a direct result of our commitment to quality and the dedication we have to our customers.
Unfortunately, due to FDA regulations, we cannot post all of those reviews on our website. The FDA forbids all CBD companies from publishing reviews in which customers mention specific health conditions. As you might imagine, a large number of our consumer reviews mention specific health conditions.
In order to comply with the FDA, we’ve published a representative selection of reviews that pass the FDA guidelines. These are actual, unaltered reviews from real customers, and because transparency is a big part of who we are here at Green Roads, they range from 1-star disappointments to 5-star raves. We’re proud of the praise, and we learn from the critiques.
Why Buy Green Roads Products?
Green Roads is the first CBD company founded by a licensed compounding pharmacist in the United States. We set the gold standard for self-regulation in the rapidly evolving CBD industry. Our first commitment is to help each person find the healthiest version of themselves through the power of plants.
CBN is a cannabinoid found in hemp plants like CBD. CBN is non-intoxicating, and while research into this compound is relatively new, there are indications CBN has properties that make it perfect for sleep formulas.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid. It’s a common ingredient in many relaxation products including Green Roads CBD Relax Capsules.
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring amino acid that experts say helps you relax and calms you down. It’s a common ingredient in many relaxation products.
Buy mild CBD oil from Green Roads. This lab-tested, full-spectrum pharmacist-formulated CBD oil supports well-being for your body and mind.